Palate cancer is cancer related to the throat , tongue root, tonsils , oropharynx that extends from the nose to the mouth to the esophagus and sinuses. Your throat is a muscular tube that starts after the nose and ends at your neck. Palate cancer usually begins in the flat cells located inside your throat.
What is throat cancer?
- Palate cancer is a form of head and neck cancer.
- It usually begins in the throat (oropharynx), voice box (larynx), vocal cords or tonsils.
- As the tumor grows, it penetrates into the mucous membrane and muscle layers to surrounding tissues.
- Lymph nodes, neck, lungs and other organs may gradually be affected.
Types of throat cancer
There are several different types of nasopharyngeal cancer and each patient is different, but the two most common types of nasopharyngeal cancer are:
Palate cancer forms in the hollow nasopharynx that runs from behind the nose to the top of your windpipe.
Most throat cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. Other less common types of throat cancer include small salivary gland cancer. It is classified into three categories:
- Throat cancer (Nasopharynx ) : Formed in the upper part of the throat, behind the nose
- Oropharyngeal cancer (Oropharynx.): Form in the middle part of the throat, behind the mouth
- Hypopharynx (hypopharynx): Formed in the lower part of the throat, just above the larynx or voice box
Laryngeal cancer refers to cancer that forms in the tissues of the larynx. The larynx is the part of the throat between the base of the tongue and the trachea and consists of three main parts:
- Epithelial cancer (supraglottis) or vestibular larynx: The upper part of the larynx on the vocal cords including the epiglottis
- Cancer of the glottis (glottis = vocal cords): The middle part of the voice box where the vocal cords are located
- Cancer of the glottis (subglottis): The lower part of the larynx between the vocal cords and the windpipe
What causes nasopharyngeal cancer ?
The exact cause of nasopharyngeal cancer is unknown, but tobacco use is thought to play an important role in about 80% of cases.
Risk factors for developing throat cancer may include:
- Consume too much alcohol.
- Poor oral hygiene.
- Consume too much salty meat.
- Abnormal tissue growth.
- Gender: Men are five times more likely than women to get throat cancer.
- Age: most cases occur over the age of 60
- Contact with a number of chemicals: including nickel smoke, asbestos and sulfuric acid
Nasopharyngeal cancer is also related to certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a sexually transmitted virus.
Palate cancer is also related to other types of cancer. Some people are diagnosed with throat cancer and diagnosed with esophageal, lung or bladder cancer at the same time. This may be because these cancers have several similar risk factors.
Symptoms of throat cancer
The signs of nasopharyngeal cancer with throat cancer symptoms vary from person to person and depend on where the cancer first developed. Early signs of nasopharyngeal cancer may include:
- Hoarseness or other changes in voice
- Trouble swallowing or feeling something is stuck in the throat
- Persistent sore throat
- Ear pain: partial hearing loss if the affected area is behind the nose
- Traces of blood in sputum.
- Persistent cough
- Respiratory problems
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
- Pain in the upper neck and jaw
- Unexplained weight loss
These symptoms do not always mean you have throat cancer. However, it is important to discuss this with your doctor, as they may signal other health problems.
Diagnosis of throat cancer
Before starting treatment, your doctor will need to diagnose the type of throat cancer you have. This is an important first step in developing the best treatment plan for you.
Palate cancer is diagnosed by several tests including:
- Endoscopy: helps the doctor see more clearly about your throat. If this test shows abnormalities, the doctor may take a sample of tissue from the throat and check for cancer.
- Throat biopsy: A throat biopsy is the first step in diagnosing nasopharyngeal cancer. Different methods are used to obtain tissue for a biopsy depending on the location of the tumor.
- Imaging diagnosis: As part of the diagnosis, a radiologist takes special X-rays of your throat, such as a CT scan, MRI or Panorex. Imaging tests provide more details about the tissue, if the cancer is found scans can show how deep the cancer is and whether it has spread.
Stage of throat cancer
Your doctor will tell you what stage of throat cancer you are at during the diagnosis. Staging describes the extent to which cancer has spread or progressed.
Staging helps doctors determine which treatments are right for you.
- Stage 0: called local carcinoma this is the beginning of cancer. It describes abnormal cells in the pharyngeal mucosa likely to become cancerous.
- Stage 1: describes the very early stage of cancer. The tumor is not 2 cm tall and the cancer has not reached the lymph nodes.
- Stage 2: The tumor is larger than 2 cm but not more than 4 cm. Cancer at this stage has not spread to the lymph nodes.
- Stage 3 the tumor is larger than 4 cm or has spread to a lymph node on the same neck as the tumor. The gland is also smaller than 3cm.
- Stage 4: is the most advanced stage of throat cancer. The tumor may be any size but it has spread to nearby tissue such as the trachea, thyroid, lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
Stage 3 and 4 palate cancer is more likely to return after initial treatment compared to early stage cancer.
Methods of treatment of throat cancer is what?
The treatment options for any tumor depend on a number of factors including the size, location, type and involvement of other surrounding structures.
If cancer is detected at an early stage, it can be cured with radiation and surgery. However, if it is not detected early, extensive surgery and laryngeal and pharyngeal surgery may be required. If your voice box is removed, you will have to learn to speak again. Removing the oropharynx requires tube surgery to allow food to pass.
- Surgery: the tumor is surgically removed, this may require partial or complete removal of the thyroid, tissue or muscle, or the entire larynx, tongue depending on the location and size of the tumor. Nearby lymph glands may also need to be removed if the cancer has spread to these.
- Radiation therapy: using small, precise doses of radiation targets and destroying cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy: the use of anti-cancer drugs, often in combination with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may be helpful in controlling cancer that has spread because the entire body is treated.
- Targeted therapy: is a newer form of cancer treatment with drugs that prevent or slow the growth or spread of cancer by targeting specific aspects of the biology of the tumor. Another type of targeted therapy used to treat nasopharyngeal cancer is cetuximab (Erbitux).
Combined methods such as surgery accompanied by radiation, chemotherapy or radiation especially in the case of large tumors.
Therapeutic rehabilitation after treatment
Treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer often causes complications that may need to work with therapists to regain the ability to swallow, eat solid foods and talk. During and after treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer your doctor may ask for help with you:
Caring for open surgery in your throat if you have open tracheotomy
- Difficult to eat
- Swallowing difficulty
- Stiffness and pain in your neck
- Speech problems
Your doctor may discuss potential side effects and complications of treatments with you.
Prospects for throat cancer
If diagnosed early, throat cancer has a high survival rate.
Palate cancer may not be cured once malignant cells spread to parts of the body outside the neck and head. However people who are diagnosed can continue treatment to prolong their life and slow the progression of the disease.
FDA approved drug for head and neck cancer (nasopharynx)
LP medication updates cancer drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cancers that arise in the head or neck (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, glands) saliva, throat, throat or larynx). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug name links to the NCI Information on Cancer Drugs Summary. There may be drugs used in head and neck cancer not listed here.
The drug is approved for head and neck cancer (nasopharynx)
- Bleomycin Sulfate
- Erbitux (Cetuximab)
- Hydrea (Hydroxyurea)
- Keytruda (Pembrolizumab)
- Opdivo (Nivolumab)
- Taxotere (Docetaxel)
- Trexall (Methotrexate)
Combined drug used in head and neck cancer
- TPF gồm T= Docetaxel (Taxotere), P = Cisplatin (Platinol), F = Fluorouracil
Reference source of throat cancer article
- Source mayoclinic.org article Throat cancer updated on November 9, 2019 .
- Source webmd.com article What You Need to Know About Throat Cancer updated November 9, 2019.
- Source healthline.com article What Is Throat Cancer? Updated on 09/11/2019.
- Source Cancer.gov article Drugs FDA Approved for Head and Neck Cancer updated November 27, 2019.
- Source vi.wikipedia.org article Throat cancer updated on November 9, 2019.
- A reputable source index-china.com summarizes the article What is throat cancer? Updated 14/4/2020.
Questions about treating throat cancer
Question 1: How is throat cancer treated?
- In most cases, surgery is the first treatment for throat cancer when detected early.
- Surgical options may include removal of all or part of the larynx (voice box), part of the throat or cancerous lymph nodes in the neck.
- For advanced or recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer, surgery is often combined with other forms of treatment, such as radiation and chemotherapy.
- Minimally invasive surgical options may be available for some patients, such as flexible robotic surgery, which allows surgeons to access hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and throat with it. Micro flexible.
- Benefits of flexible robot surgery may include shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, and postoperative pain relief.
Question 2: What are the potential side effects of treating throat cancer?
- Depending on the therapy, treating throat cancer can cause side effects, including voice changes and difficulty swallowing.
- Voice changes are often caused by surgery to remove vocal cords.
- Radiation therapy can also cause hoarseness.
- Dysphagia, called dysphagia, can range from chronic dry mouth to swallowing anything, including saliva.
- Other common side effects include poor speech, difficulty chewing, swelling, facial disfigurement, loss of appetite and appetite changes.
Question 3: How can side effects related to treatment be managed?
- Many of the side effects of treating throat cancer can be managed with supportive care therapies, such as nutritional therapies and cancer rehabilitation techniques, such as oral and occupational therapies.
- If a feeding tube is needed to help maintain your nutrition, your doctor will determine whether you will need it on a short or long term basis. In some cases, the tube may be removed as soon as normal eating is possible.
- Pain management physicians, dietitians, speech therapists, physical therapists and natural clinicians can provide a range of techniques to help prevent and reduce side effects of treatments. treat throat cancer. They can participate from the beginning of treatment, during treatment or after treatment is completed.
Question 4: How long do side effects last?
- The time patients experience side effects varies.
- Voice loss may be permanent for some patients with nasopharyngeal cancer, but options may be available in certain cases.
- For example, with a tracheostomy, or TEP, the doctor places a small, one-way valve between the trachea and esophagus to help the patient speak. TEP may be an option for patients with laryngectomy or total or partial vocal resection.
Question 5: Who can get throat cancer?
Statistics for palate and mouth cancer are often combined. NCI estimates that about 51,000 Americans will develop these cancers each year and more than 13,000 will get laryng cancer annually. According to NCI:
- Men are at significantly higher risk than women who develop throat tumors. Men are three times more likely to get laryngeal cancer and three times more likely to develop oral or palate tumors.
- African-American men are at the highest risk of laryngeal cancer.
- The risk of nasopharyngeal cancer jumps significantly with age.
Question 6: Risk factors for throat cancer
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , more than 70 percent of all cancers of the throat related to human papillomavirus (HPV), can be spread during sexual intercourse with Oral, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adds that HPV is not a known risk factor for laryngeal cancer.
- Other risk factors for throat cancer include smoking, alcohol use and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
- Many patients with nasopharyngeal cancer are at high risk of secondary cancer, typically in the larynx, esophagus or lung . After treatment ends, some patients may also develop tumors in the lungs, mouth, throat or other nearby areas.
Question 7: How to check for throat cancer?
- Aphthous cancer or a precancerous condition in the oropharynx can be detected early in an annual physical exam with the doctor, during regular oral exams or regular self-exams.
- Ulcers in the mouth or throat, lumps or white patches may be an early sign of throat cancer.
- Screening for other types of throat cancer may be more difficult. However, these cancers can be detected early by visiting a doctor as symptoms develop.
- Common symptoms of throat cancer include voice changes, chronic coughs, sore throat or other types of sore throat, ear pain, difficulty swallowing, lumps or swelling in the throat or lymph nodes.
Question 8: How to diagnose throat cancer?
The diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer usually involves procedures that use some kind of scope to examine the parts of the mouth, nose, neck and upper digestive system. These procedures include:
- Endoscopy of the pharynx
Other diagnostic procedures include:
- Biopsy, to take a sample of cells or a piece of a tumor
- Imaging tests, including CT scans and MRI
Question 9: What are the ways to treat nasopharyngeal cancer?
Treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer may depend on the type and stage of the disease, among other factors. Treatment options for nasopharyngeal cancer include:
- Targeted therapy
Question 10: Can throat cancer spread?
- Palate cancer is a change in reproduction, growth and function of cells in the throat. Normal cells become abnormal (mutated) and proliferate uncontrollably, invading nearby (local) or distant (metastatic) tissue through the lymphatic system or blood vessels. With the dangers and increasing prevalence of nasopharyngeal cancer, many people are concerned that the disease may spread from person to person.
- So is contact with someone with nasopharyngeal cancer contagious ? The answer is no .
- Why is throat cancer not contagious ? Nasopharyngeal cancer is not an infectious disease, it is a form of abnormal development and mutation inside the body of the patient, so it is not capable of direct infection. The disease can only be transmitted indirectly through HPV – the virus increases the risk of infection.
PGS.TS. Trần Ngọc Ánh hiện là Bệnh viện Đại học Y Hà Nội, Phó giáo sư chuyên ngành Nội Tiêu hóa Trưởng Khoa Nội tổng hợp-u hóa của Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội. Bác sĩ tư vấn tại Nhà Thuốc ThuocLP.
Trình độ chuyên môn, Học hàm- Học vị:
Tốt nghiệp hệ Bác sĩ đa khoa, Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội
Tốt nghiệp Thạc sỹ chuyên ngành Nội khoa, Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội
Tốt nghiệp chương trình đào tạo chuyên khoa chuyên ngành Tiêu hoá, Trung tâm Viện Trường Henri Mondor, Đại học Paris 6, Cộng hòa Pháp 1996-1997; 1999
Tốt nghiệp chương trình đào tạo chuyên khoa chuyên ngành Tiêu hoá, Bệnh viện Bắc Hoàng Gia Sydney, Australia; 2002
Tốt nghiệp chương trình đào tạo chuyên khoa chuyên ngành các bệnh lý gan mạn, Pizza, Italia 2009
Tốt nghiệp Tiến sĩ chuyên ngành Tiêu hoá, Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội
Phó giáo sư, Chuyên ngành Tiêu hoá, Trường Đại học Y Hà nội
Đào tạo và Nghiên cứu khoa học:
Đã công bố hơn 200 bài báo trên các tạp chí chuyên ngành trong nước và quốc tế
Chủ biên nhiều sách chuyên khảo và tham gia biên soạn 2 sách giáo khoa.
Hướng dẫn nhiều sinh viên và học viên sau đại học của Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội
Chủ nhiệm nhiều đề tài nghiên cứu cấp cơ sở
Chứng chỉ Y khoa:
Chứng chỉ thực hành lâm sàng tốt (GCP: 2012, 2015), Bộ Y tế
Chứng chỉ chuyên ngành: Nội soi tiêu hoá thông thường, Nội soi tiêu hoá can thiệp, Siêu âm tiêu hoá thông thường, Siêu âm tiêu hoá can thiệp (BV Bạch Mai), Bệnh lý gan mạn.