Statistics on prostate cancer
- Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland, which produces some fluid in semen and plays a role in controlling urine in men.
- The prostate gland is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.
- In the United States (United States), this is the most common cancer in men, but it can also be treated if detected at an early stage.
- In 2017, the American Cancer Society predicts an estimated 161,360 new diagnoses of prostate cancer and about 26,730 deaths will result from it.
- Regular testing is important because cancer needs to be diagnosed before it has spread.
Overview of prostate cancer
- Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate gland, a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produce seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.
- Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Usually prostate cancer grows slowly and is initially confined to the prostate, where it may not cause serious harm.
- However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may require minimal or even no treatment, others are very aggressive and can spread quickly.
- Prostate cancer is detected early when it is still confined to the prostate gland, which is more likely to be successfully treated.
Causes of prostate cancer
- The cause of prostate cancer is unknown.
- Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when some cells in your prostate gland become abnormal. Mutations in the DNA of abnormal cells cause cells to grow and divide faster than normal cells.
- Abnormal cells continue to live, when other cells will die. Abnormal cells accumulate to form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue.
- Some abnormal cells may also burst and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer
- Age: The risk of your prostate cancer increases as you get older.
- Race: For unspecified reasons, black men are at higher risk of prostate cancer than men of other races. In black men, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or progressive.
- Family history: If men in your family have prostate cancer, your risk may increase. In addition, if you have a family history of genes that increase your risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a family history of strong breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. .
- Obesity: Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more susceptible to advanced disease that is harder to treat.
- Diet: ongoing research linking diet and prostate cancer, and there is some evidence that a high calcium diet is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma. prostate
- Smoking: Smokers have a higher risk of prostate cancer and a worse prognosis after diagnosis.
There are usually no symptoms in the early stages of prostate cancer. However, if symptoms appear, they usually involve one or more of the following:
- frequent urination, even at night
- difficulty starting and maintaining urine
- blood in urine
- painful urination and less frequent ejaculation
- Hard to achieve or maintain an erection can be difficult
Advanced prostate cancer may be related to the following symptoms:
- bone pain, usually in the spine, femur, pelvis or ribs
If the cancer has spread to the spine and pinched the spinal cord, there may be:
- weak legs
- urinary incontinence
- incontinence defecation
Stage of prostate cancer
AJCC TNM staging system
A staging system is a standard way to determine the extent of cancer spread. The most widely used staging system for prostate cancer is the AJCC TNM system (Joint Committee on Cancer of the United States), which was last updated in January 2018.
The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 main information:
- For tumors: description of the size of the main area of prostate cancer (type T) *
- For lymph nodes: describe whether prostate cancer has spread to any lymph nodes and to what extent (N types)
- For metastasis: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body (type M)
- PSA level at time of diagnosis
- Group Classes (based on the Gleason score), which is a measure of the rapid growth and spread of cancer. This is determined by the result of a prostate biopsy (or surgery).
* There are 2 types of T for prostate cancer:
- The clinical category T (written as CT) is the doctor’s best estimate of the extent of your illness, based on test results (including digital rectal exam), prostate biopsy, And any check your ultrasound image.
- If you have had surgery to remove the prostate gland, the doctor can also identify the type of pathological T (written as pT). The pathology is likely to be more accurate than the clinical T, because it is done after all your prostate has been tested in the laboratory.
The numbers or letters after T, N and M provide more details about each of these elements. Higher numbers mean more advanced cancers. Once T, N and M types are identified, this information will be combined (along with the Group and PSA level if they are available) in a process called stage grouping to obtain a general stage of the disease. cancer.
Stages of ug prostate mail
- In stage I, prostate cancer is found only in prostate and PSA <10.
- Stage I prostate cancer is detected through a microscope, meaning it cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam (DRE) and it is not visible on the image of the prostate. .
- Prostate cancer detection at this stage is nearly 80%, with a 5-year survival rate of nearly 100%.
- In stage II, the tumor has grown inside the prostate, but not beyond it.
- The tumor may involve more than half of a prostate lobe without involving both lobes (stage II-a). Or the tumor may involve both lobes (stage II-b).
- In stage 2, cells have higher Glory scores and can grow faster.
- Stage III prostate cancer has spread outside the prostate and may have spread to nearby seminal vesicles.
- There is no spread to the lymph nodes nor metastases to distant tissues.
- As with stage I prostate cancer, the 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%.
- In stage IV, the cancer has spread (metastasized) outside the prostate to other tissues.
- Stage IV prostate cancer usually spreads to lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.
- For cancer patients at this stage, the 5-year survival rate is 29%.
Determining the stage of prostate cancer is extremely important. The stage of prostate cancer helps determine the optimal treatment, as well as prognosis. Therefore, patients undergo extensive testing to determine the stage of prostate cancer correctly.
Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer
- Screening for prostate cancer usually depends on your individuality. This is largely because, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most prostate cancers grow slowly and do not cause any health problems.
- This is because the results from the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which may be part of the screening, can lead to a wrong diagnosis of cancer. For both of these reasons, screening can cause unnecessary anxiety and unnecessary treatment.
- Your doctor will develop an appropriate treatment plan for your cancer based on your age, health status and cancer stage.
- If the cancer is not invasive, your doctor may suggest careful waiting, also called active supervision. This means you will delay treatment, but you must check regularly with your doctor to monitor your cancer.
More aggressive cancers can be treated with other options, such as:
- hormone therapy
- stereoscopic radiation
If your cancer is very dangerous and has spread, it most likely has spread to your bones. For bone metastases, the above treatments may be used, in addition to other methods.
Prevention of prostate cancer
There is no evidence that you can prevent prostate cancer. But you can reduce the risk:
Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables:
- Avoid high-fat foods and instead focus on choosing a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
- Fruits and vegetables are packed with vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.
- Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through a diet has not been specifically proven.
- But eating a healthy diet with lots of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.
Choose healthier food supplements:
- No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing the risk of prostate cancer.
- Instead, choose foods rich in vitamins and minerals so you can maintain healthy vitamin levels in the body.
Exercise most days of the week:
- Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight, and improves your mood.
- There is some evidence that men who do not exercise have higher levels of PSA, while men who exercise may have a lower risk of prostate cancer.
- Try to exercise most days of the week. If you are new to exercise, start slowly and exercise more time each day.
Maintain a healthy weight:
- If your current weight is healthy, exercise by exercising most days of the week.
- If you need to lose weight, exercise more and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a healthy weight loss plan.
Prospects for cancer of prostate
- If the disease is found before it spreads to other organs in a process called metastasis, the 5-year survival rate is 99 percent.
- After fifteen years, this drops to 96 percent. Once the cancer has spread, or has spread, the 5-year survival rate is 29%.
- Regular screening can help detect prostate cancer while it is still treatable.
Reference Source for Prostate Cancer:
- Source mayoclinic.org article Prostate cancer : https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20353087 , updated April 17, 2019.
- Source en.wikipedia.org Prostate cancer article : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostate_cancer , updated November 16, 2019.
- A reputable source index-china.com summarizes the article What is prostate cancer?: , updated 13/3/2020.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Pharmacy.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.