What is lung cancer? Causes, symptoms and treatment of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer and has the highest mortality in the world, accounting for 28% of all cancer deaths in both men and women. Here are some general information about lung cancer that you should know to actively prevent and support the maximum treatment process.
What is lung cancer ?
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, it usually occurs when a carcinogen, or carcinogen, causes the growth of abnormal cells in the lung.
These cells multiply out of control and eventually form a tumor. As the tumor grows, it destroys the vicinity of the lung. Eventually, the tumor cells can spread to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body. These include: liver, bone, adrenal glands, brain. .
Types of lung cancer
Cancer that starts in the lung is called primary lung cancer. If the cancer has spread to your lungs from another part of the body, this is secondary to lung cancer.
There are many different types of lung cancer and they are divided into 2 main groups:
- Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): About 10 to 20% of lung cancer is small cell lung cancer. This is the most common cancer associated with smoking.
- Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): This type of cancer accounts for 80 to 90% of all lung cancers. NSCLC is divided into three subcategories but most are adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
Causes of lung cancer
Lung cancer is caused when mutated cells in the lungs grow out of control, forming a tumor. In many cases, these altered cells die or are attacked by the immune system.
While the exact cause has not been determined, certain risk factors are strongly associated with the disease, especially smoking. In addition, exposure to certain chemicals, gases or pollutants over time may increase the risk of developing cancer.
The danger elements
- Age: About two in three lung cancers are diagnosed in people over 65 and most people are older than 45. The median age at diagnosis is 71.
- Family history: Genetics can cause some people to get lung cancer. People with a family member with cancer may be more likely to get the disease.
- Smoking and passive smoking: Smoking is considered the leading cause of lung cancer. For people who do not smoke but are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work, secondhand smoke can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer.
- Exposure to asbestos or other contaminants: Carcinogenic chemicals in the workplace increase the risk of lung cancer, especially if you smoke.
- Radon exposure: Radon is a colorless, odorless radioactive gas found in some homes and a leading cause of lung cancer.
In people with lung cancer, symptoms do not always occur until the condition has reached a later stage.
However, some people may notice symptoms that they may think are associated with a less severe acute illness.
Risk symptoms include:
- loss of appetite
- Change voice as hoarseness
- Frequent chest infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia
- Prolonged cough may start to get worse
- shortness of breath
- Unexplained headache
- weight loss
If the cancer has spread outside the lungs, it can cause other symptoms such as bone pain if it has spread to your bones, chest pain or coughing up blood.
Many of these symptoms may be due to other conditions. See your doctor if you have symptoms so that problems can be diagnosed and treated properly.
The method of treatment depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of each patient. Surgery and radiation are the two most common treatments.
Treatments for each type of cancer include:
SCLC: This type of cancer can be aggressive and is commonly found in both lungs. Treatments include:
- Laser therapy
NSCLC: This is the most common form of lung cancer. Treatments include:
- Laser therapy
- Photodynamic therapy
- Targeted therapy
See details about the treatment of lung cancer, small cell not:
Metastatic lung cancer
Metastatic lung cancer occurs when the cancer cells separate from the tumor and move to other parts of your body through the blood or lymph system.
Lung cancer may metastasize at the time of diagnosis or after treatment. Because the symptoms do not develop when the cancer has just begun, the cancer usually spreads before it is diagnosed.
Immunotherapy and targeted therapies may be recommended for the treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Other treatment options may depend on where the cancer has spread.
Options for brain metastases include:
- Surgery is an option in very specific cases.
If the cancer has spread to the bone, radiation therapy or targeted therapy may be recommended.
Lung cancer is a serious and potentially fatal disease that affects a person’s ability to breathe.
However, screening for early diagnosis of people at high risk for lung cancer can help them to be treated in earlier and treatable stages. The size and spread of cancer determines people’s outlook.
Treatment options include surgery to remove parts or all of the lungs, chemotherapy and radiation, as well as targeted drug therapy.
If you have symptoms and risk of lung cancer, contact your doctor about your problem.
Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in stages
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a more common type of lung cancer than small cell.
Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immunotherapy Series or used together to treat lung cancer. Each type of treatment may cause different side effects.
- Treatment phase 0 NSCLC
- Treatment phase I NSCLC
- Treatment of NSCLC phase II
- Phase IIIA treatment NSCLC
- Treatment stage IIIB NSCLC
- Treatment of NSCLC phase IV
- Treatment of lung cancer has spread to another part
- Treatment of lung cancer has spread
- Treatment of advanced or recurrent lung cancer after treatment
See details of NSCLC lung cancer treatment stages:
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) drug approved by the FDA
The list of non-small cell lung cancer drugs is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The list includes generic names and brand names. The common drug combinations are used in lung cancer. Individual drugs in combinations approved by the FDA. However, combination medications are often not approved, although they are widely used.
- Abraxane (Pacuminaxel)
- Gilotrif ( Afatinib )
- Afinitor ( Everolimus )
- Alecensa ( Alectinib )
- Alimta (Pemetrexed Disodium)
- Alunbrig (Brigatinib)
- Tecentriq ( Atezolizumab )
- Avastin ( Bevacizumab )
- Alunbrig (Brigatinib)
- Zykadia ( Ceritinib )
- Halkory ( Crizotinib )
- Cyramza ( Ramucirumab )
- Tafinlar ( Dabrafenib )
- Vizimpro (Dacomitinib)
- Taxotere (Docetaxel)
- Imfinzi (Durvalumab)
- Tarceva ( Erlotinib Hydrochloride)
- Iressa ( Gefitinib )
- Gemzar (Gemcitabine Hydrochloride)
- Keytruda ( Pembrolizumab )
- Lorbrena (Lorlatinib)
- Mustargen (Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride)
- Mekinist ( Trametinib )
- Rheumatrex (Methotrexate)
- Navelbine (Vinorelbine Tartrate)
- Portrazza (Necitumumab)
- Opdivo ( Nivolumab )
- Taxol (Paclitaxel)
- Tagrisso ( Osimertinib )
A combination of non-small cell lung cancer drugs is approved for use
See the list of FDA-approved lung cancer medicines:
Reference Source for lung cancer:
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Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Pharmacy.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.