Overview of kidney cancer
Cancer is when the cells in the body grow out of control. These cells may form a tumor or damaged tissue. If cancer cells grow in the kidney, it is called kidney cancer.
- The most common kidney cancer in adults is renal cell carcinoma. It forms in the lining of the tiny tubes in the kidney.
- Cancer found in the center of the kidney is called transitional cell carcinoma.
- Wilms tumor is a kidney cancer that a young child can have.
On average, people are diagnosed with kidney cancer at age 64. It is rarely found in people under 45 years of age. More than 65,000 people will be diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2018 in the U.S. This risk is higher in men than women.
Subjects at high risk of kidney cancer
Men are twice as likely to get kidney cancer.
- An estimated 40,610 men and 23,380 women in the US are expected to be diagnosed with kidney cancer this year.
- That means almost double the number of people who will be diagnosed! However, the exact reason for this difference is unknown. Possible factors include higher levels of chemical exposure and higher smoking rates.
- Men are more likely to be smokers and more likely to be exposed to carcinogenic chemicals in the workplace.
Kidney cancer most often occurs in people over 55.
- The risk of developing kidney cancer increases with age and the average age of diagnosis is 64 years. Although kidney cancer is rare in people under 45 years of age.
- There is a type of kidney cancer, called Wilms’ tumor, which tends to affect children. About 5% of all childhood cancers are Wilms’ tumors.
The cause of kidney cancer
- The cause of kidney cancer is unknown, the most common form of kidney cancer, although there are several risk factors.
- Doctors know that kidney cancer begins when some kidney cells have mutations in their DNA. Mutations for cells to grow and divide rapidly.
- Abnormal accumulating cells form a tumor that can expand beyond the kidney. Some cells can break down and spread (metastasize) to distant parts of the body.
Here are some other risk factors for kidney cancer:
- Smoking: If you smoke, the risk of kidney cancer is twice that of non-smokers. Smoking cigars can also increase your risk.
- Men: Men are twice as likely to get kidney cancer than women.
- Obesity: Weight gain can cause hormonal changes that increase your risk.
- Reduced use of drugs for a long time: This includes over-the-counter medications in addition to prescription drugs.
- Have advanced kidney disease or are on long term dialysis: treat people with kidney failure
- Certain genetic factors: such as von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) or inherited papillary renal cell carcinoma
- Family with a history of kidney cancer: The risk is particularly high among siblings.
- Exposure to certain chemicals: such as asbestos, cadmium, benzene, organic solvents, or certain herbicides
- High blood pressure: Doctors don’t know whether high blood pressure or the medication used to treat it is a source of increased risk.
- Lymphoma: For an unknown reason, there is an increased risk of kidney cancer in lymphoma patients.
Having these risk factors does not mean you will have kidney cancer. You may have lung cancer in other causes not mentioned above.
Symptoms of kidney cancer
In many cases, there are no obvious early symptoms and kidney cancer can only be selected in tests done for another reason. If symptoms appear, they may include:
- Blood in your urine, may notice your urine is darker than normal or red.
- A persistent pain in your back or underneath, just below your ribs
- Loss of appetite
- Unexplained weight loss
- Fever, often come and go (intermittently)
- A lump or swelling is on your side (although kidney cancer is often too small to feel).
TMN and stage kidney cancer
Kidney cancer is described in stages developed by the US Joint Committee on Cancer. This system is better known as the TMN system.
- “T” refers to the tumor. Doctors designate a “T” with a number based on the size and growth of the tumor.
- “N” describes whether the cancer has spread to a node in the lymphatic system.
- “M” means the cancer has spread.
Doctors also prescribe one-phase RCC. This stage is based on the size of the tumor and the spread of cancer, there are four stages:
- Stages 1 and 2: describe the cancer in which the tumor is still in the kidney. Stage 2 means that the tumor is growing and is larger than seven centimeters.
- Stages 3 and 4: means the cancer has spread into the main vein, to the lymph nodes, or to other organs.
- Stage 4: is the most advanced form of the disease. Stage 4 means that the cancer has spread to the lymphatic system or other organs. Because the adrenal gland is attached to the kidney, the cancer usually spreads there first. Stage 4 kidney cancer also means that the cancer may have spread to more than one lymph node near the kidney or elsewhere in the body.
Types of kidney cancer
There are several types of kidney cancer:
- Kidney cell carcinoma: Kidney cell carcinoma is the most common type of adult kidney cancer, accounting for about 85% of the diagnosis. This type of cancer develops in the renal tubules near the kidney. There are thousands of these small filtration units in each kidney.
- Prostate carcinoma. This is also called transitional cell carcinoma. It accounts for 10% to 15% of kidney cancers diagnosed in adults. Cellular carcinoma begins in the kidney area where urine collects before moving to the bladder, called the pelvis. This type of kidney cancer is treated like bladder cancer because both cancers begin in the same cell.
- Sarcoma: Sarcoma of the kidneys is rare. This type of cancer develops in the soft tissue of the kidneys; Thin layer of connective tissue around the kidneys, called capsules; or fat around. Renal sarcoma is usually treated with surgery. However, sarcoma often returns in the kidney area or spreads to other parts of the body. Additional surgery or chemotherapy may be recommended after the first surgery.
- Wilms tumor: The Wilms tumor is most common in children and is treated differently than kidney cancer in adults. This type of tumor is more likely to be successfully treated with radiation and chemotherapy than other types of kidney cancer when combined with surgery. This has led to a different approach to treatment.
- Lymphoma: Lymphoma can enlarge both kidneys and are associated with enlarged lymph nodes, called lymph nodes, in other parts of the body, including the neck, chest and abdominal cavity. In rare cases, kidney lymphoma may appear as a single tumor in the kidney and may include enlarged regional lymph nodes. If lymphoma is a possibility, your doctor may diagnose and recommend chemotherapy instead of surgery.
Treatment for kidney cancer depends on the size of the cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.
The main treatments are:
- Surgery to remove part or all of the affected kidney: this is the main treatment for most people
- Inflation treatments: where cancer cells are destroyed by freezing or heating them
- Biological treatments: drugs that help prevent cancer from growing or spreading
- embolisation: a procedure to cut off the blood supply to cancer
- Radiation therapy: where high-energy radiation is used to target cancer cells and reduce symptoms
Cancer that has not spread beyond the kidneys can usually be cured by removing some or all of the kidneys, although sometimes cryotherapy or radio frequency disinfection can be used.
A complete cure may not work if the cancer has spread, but it may slow its progression and treat any symptoms with surgery, medication or radiation.
Prevention of kidney cancer
Different factors cause different types of cancer. While there is no proven way to completely prevent the disease, you can reduce your risk by:
- Do not smoke or use tobacco.
- Keep blood pressure healthy.
- Maintain a healthy body weight.
- Eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in fat.
Talk to your doctor for more information about your personal cancer risk.
- If you have any signs or symptoms that suggest you may have kidney cancer, your doctor will want to have a complete medical history to check for risk factors and learn more about the symptoms. your testimony.
- A physical exam can provide information about the signs of kidney cancer and other health problems. For example, your doctor may feel abnormal lumps (lumps) when they examine your abdomen (abdomen).
- If the symptoms or results show that you may have kidney cancer, more tests may be done. These may include laboratory tests and imaging tests.
Reference Source Kidney Cancer:
- Source mayoclinic.org Kidney cancer article : https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352664 , updated 25/4/2018.
- Source en.wikipedia.org Kidney cancer article : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney_cancer , updated November 18, 2019.
- Reputable sources index-china.com synthesis article Kidney cancer is what?: https://index-china.com/kidney-cancer/ , updated 12/3/2020.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Pharmacy.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.