Colorectal Canceris a cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. These can also be named colon or Colorectal Cancer, depending on where they started.
General information about Colorectal Cancer
Incidence and death
- It is difficult to separate the epidemiological considerations of Colorectal Cancerfrom Colorectal Cancerbecause epidemiological studies often consider colorectal and Colorectal Cancer(for example, coloColorectal Cancer). .
- Worldwide, Colorectal Canceris the third most common form of cancer. In 2012, an estimated 1.36 million new Colorectal Cancercases and 694,000 deaths.
Estimates of new cases and deaths from colorectal and colon cancer in the United States in 2018:
- New cases of Colorectal Cancer: 43,030.
- New cases of colon cancer: 97,220.
- Mortality: 50,630 (rectal and colon cancer combined).
Colorectal Canceraffects men and women almost equally. Among all racial groups in the United States, African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality from coloColorectal Cancer.
Causes of Colorectal Cancer
- Researchers have found a number of factors that may increase a person’s risk of coloColorectal Cancer, but it is unclear exactly how all of these factors can cause this cancer. come on.
- Cancer is caused by changes in the DNA inside our cells. DNA is the chemical in the cells that make up our genes, regulating the way cells work.
A number of genes help control when our cells grow, divide into new and die cells:
- Some genes that help cells grow, divide and survive are called oncogene s.
- The genes that help keep cell division under control or cause cells to die in time are called tumor suppressor genes.
Cancer can be caused by mutated DNA (altered) oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This leads to the cells growing out of control. Changes in many different genes are often needed to cause coloColorectal Cancer.
Factors that increase Colorectal Cancer
Lifestyle features and factors that increase your risk of Colorectal Cancerare the same as those that increase your risk of colon cancer. These include:
- Age: Most people diagnosed with colon and Colorectal Cancer are over 50 years old. Colorectal Cancermay occur in young people, but it occurs less often.
- People of African descent: People of African descent born in the United States are at greater risk of Colorectal Cancerthan those of European descent.
- Recurrent coloColorectal Cancer: If you already have Colorectal Cancer, colon cancer, or adrenal polyps, you’re at higher risk for Colorectal Cancerin the future.
- Inflammatory bowel disease : Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon and rectum, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, increase the risk of coloColorectal Cancer.
- Genetics: Genetic syndromes passed down through generations of your family can increase your risk of coloColorectal Cancer. These syndromes include FAP and HNPCC.
- Family history of coloColorectal Cancer: You are more likely to develop Colorectal Cancerif you have a parent, sibling or child with the disease. If more than one family member has colon or Colorectal Cancer, your risk is even greater.
- Diet: Colorectal Cancermay be related to a diet low in vegetables and red meat, especially when the meat is grilled or done well.
- Sedentary: If you are inactive, you are more likely to have coloColorectal Cancer. Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of colon cancer.
- Diabetes: People with type 2 diabetes and poor insulin control may have an increased risk of coloColorectal Cancer.
- Obesity: Obese people are at increased risk for Colorectal Cancerand have an increased risk of dying from colon or Colorectal Cancer when compared to those considered to be normal weight.
- Smoking: Smokers may increase your risk of colon cancer.
- Alcohol: Drinking more than three alcoholic beverages a week may increase your risk of coloColorectal Cancer.
- Radiation therapy for previous cancer: Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat cancer may previously increase the risk of coloColorectal Cancer.
Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer
At an early stage, Colorectal Canceris usually asymptomatic. That’s why it’s important to keep up with the tests your doctor recommends to see if you have it, when it’s easiest to treat.
If you have symptoms, the most likely ones include:
- Changes in intestinal motility, including constipation or diarrhea, do not seem to go away
- It feels like you can’t completely empty the bowel or urgently need to have a bowel movement
- Bleeding or cramping in your rectum
- Dark patches of blood in or on your stool; or long, thin, “pencil droppings”
- Irritability or bloating in your abdomen
- Unexplained fatigue, anorexia and weight loss
- Pelvic pain, which may occur in the later stages of the disease
Tell your doctor right away if you have symptoms suggesting Colorectal Cancer, especially in the blood in stool or unexplained weight loss.
Stages of Colorectal Cancer
The stage of a cancer determines how far it has spread. Determining the stage helps choose the most appropriate treatment.
A system commonly used to identify stages from 0 to 4. The stages of colon cancer are:
- Stage 0: This is the earliest stage, when the cancer is still in the mucosa, or the inner layer of the colon or rectum. It is also called carcinoma in situ.
- Stage 1: Cancer has grown through the inner layer of the colon or rectum but has not spread beyond the wall of the rectum or colon.
- Stage 2: The cancer has grown through or into the wall of the colon or rectum, but it has not yet reached nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage 3: The cancer has invaded nearby lymph nodes, but it has not yet affected other parts of the body.
- Stage 4: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, including other organs, such as the liver, lining the abdomen, lungs or ovaries.
- Recurrence: Cancer has returned after treatment. It may come back and affect the rectum, colon or other part of the body.
In 40% of cases, the diagnosis occurs at an advanced stage, when surgery may be the best option.
Treatment for Colorectal Cancer depends on its stage, but may include:
- related cancers and rectal tissue as well as nearby lymph nodes that are removed through the anus or through an abdominal incision. The rectum is then stitched together.
- If a large amount of tissue is removed, the rectum may not be closed and a small intestine is needed to drain, temporarily or permanently.
- If the cancer is diagnosed early, surgery can be successfully removed. If surgery does not prevent cancer, it will relieve symptoms.
- High doses of precisely targeted radiation are used to destroy cancer cells.
- This is often used to treat Colorectal Cancer. It may be used before surgery in an attempt to shrink the tumor.
- Anticancer drugs are injected by intravenous or oral route. Before surgery, it may help shrink the tumor.
- Targeted therapy is a special type of chemotherapy that targets proteins that encourage the growth of certain cancers. They may have fewer side effects than other chemotherapy.
- Medicines that can be used for Colorectal Cancerinclude bevacizumab (Avastin) and ramucirumab (Cyramza).
- One study found that patients with advanced colon cancer who received chemotherapy and had a family history of Colorectal Cancerhad a significantly lower likelihood of recurrence and death from cancer.
- Ablation can destroy a tumor without removing it. It can be done using radio frequency, ethanol or cryosurgery.
- They are delivered by ultrasound probe or needle or CT scan technology.
Prevention of Colorectal Cancer
Some lifestyle measures may reduce your risk of developing coloColorectal Cancer:
Regular checkups: People with previous coloColorectal Cancer, who are over the age of 50, have a family history of this type of cancer, or have Crohn’s disease should be checked regularly.
- Nutrition: Follow a diet high in fiber, fruits, vegetables and carbohydrates of good quality and minimal red and processed meats. Switch from saturated fat to good quality fat, such as butter, olive oil, fish oil and nuts.
- Exercise: Moderate, regular exercise has been shown to have a significant effect in reducing a person’s risk of developing coloColorectal Cancer.
- Weight: Being overweight or obese increases your risk of many cancers, including coloColorectal Cancer.
Screening for Colorectal Cancer
- Our specialists can usually cure Colorectal Cancer if they are found early. But the more Colorectal Cancer develops, the harder it is to treat.
- In people at moderate risk who have no symptoms, our doctors recommend regular screening tests for Colorectal Cancer starting at age 50.
- Because many people are being screened for Colorectal Cancer, we detect it earlier and more often.
- Up to 90 percent of patients live five years or more after treatment if the cancer is detected and removed at an early stage.
- If you have hereditary Colorectal Cancer syndrome, two factors determine our recommendations on how often you should be screened: the specific condition you have and the number and makeup of polyps.
- Your treatment team can explain the benefits and risks of laparoscopic disease management. They may also discuss medications that can help shrink existing polyps or prevent new ones.
Reduce the risk of Colorectal Cancer
- Many studies are seeking to identify the cause of coloColorectal Cancer. Hopefully this can lead to new ways to help stop it.
- Other studies are looking to see whether certain types of diet, dietary supplements, or medications can reduce a person’s risk of coloColorectal Cancer.
- Numerous studies have shown that aspirin and analgesics like it can help reduce the risk of coloColorectal Cancer, but these drugs can have serious side effects.
- Researchers are currently trying to find out whether the benefits may outweigh the risks for certain groups of people at high risk for coloColorectal Cancer.
- A study published in the journal Cell suggests that aspirin may be effective in boosting the immune system in patients with breast, skin and bowel cancer.
- A gene involved in colon cancer recurrence and shortening survival time can help predict results for patients with the gene – and bring scientists closer to developing individual treatments. , revealing research in Gut.
- A study published in Science shows that vitamin C worth 300 oranges weakens cancer cells, showing that the power of vitamin C could one day be harnessed to fight coloColorectal Cancer.
- Researchers have found that drinking coffee every day – even decaffeinated coffee – can reduce the risk of coloColorectal Cancer.
- Palliative care focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Palliative care professionals work with you, your family and other doctors to provide an extra layer of support for your ongoing care.
- An example of palliative care may be surgery to relieve rectal obstruction to improve your symptoms.
- Palliative care is provided by a group of doctors, nurses, and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care groups aim to improve the quality of life for people with cancer and their families.
- This form of care is provided with medical treatments or other treatments you may receive.
Source of Colorectal Cancer:
- Source mayoclinic.org Colorectal Cancer article : https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rectal-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352884 , updated October 9, 2019.
- Source en.wikipedia.org article ColoColorectal Cancer : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorectal_cancer , updated 11/11/2019.
- A reputable source index-china.com summarizes the article What is Colorectal Cancer?: https://index-china.com/colorectal-cancer/, updated 13/3/2020.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Pharmacy.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.