What is Breast Cancer ? Causes and ways of preventing breast cancer. Content sharing overview of breast cancer, the causes of breast cancer, symptoms, signs, breast cancer stages, treatment and prevention. Here, let’s learn about LP breast cancer with this article.
What is breast cancer? Overview of breast cancer
- Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are many different types of breast cancer. The type of breast cancer depends on the cells in the breast that turn into cancer.
- Breast cancer can start in different parts of the breast. The breast is made up of three main parts: the lobes, ducts and connective tissue. The lobes are the glands that produce milk. Tubes are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. Connective tissue (including fibrous and adipose tissue) surrounds and holds everything together. Most breast cancers begin in ducts or lobes.
- Breast cancer occurs when malignant tumors develop in the breast. These cells can spread by separating from the original tumor and entering blood vessels or lymph vessels, branching into tissues throughout the body. When cancer cells move to other parts of the body and start damaging other tissues and organs, the process is called metastasis.
The cause of breast cancer
- After puberty, a woman’s breast consists of fat, connective tissue and thousands of lobes, small glands that make milk for breastfeeding. A small tube, or duct, carries milk toward the nipple.
- In cancer, the body’s cells multiply uncontrollably. It is excessive cell growth that causes cancer.
- Breast cancer usually starts in the inner lining of the milk ducts or milk supply lobes. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body.
The exact cause is still unclear, but several risk factors make it more likely. Some of these are preventable:
- Age: The risk increases with age. After 20 years, the risk of developing breast cancer in the next decade is 0.6%. By the age of 70, this number reached 3.84%.
- Genetics: If a relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher. Women with the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are at risk of developing breast, ovarian or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another gene that is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer.
- History of breast cancer or breast lumps: Women with previous breast cancer are more likely to get the disease than those without a history of the disease. There are certain types of benign or noncancerous tumors that increase the risk of developing cancer later. Examples include atypical duct hyperplasia or local lobular carcinoma.
- Dense breast tissue: Breast cancer is more likely to develop in higher density breast tissue.
- Estrogen exposure and breastfeeding: Prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of breast cancer. This could be due to earlier onset time or later than average menopause. Between these times, estrogen levels are higher. Breastfeeding, especially for more than a year, appears to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, possibly because pregnancy followed by breastfeeding reduces exposure to estrogen.
- Body weight: Obese or obese women after menopause may be at a higher risk of developing breast cancer, possibly due to higher estrogen levels. High sugar intake may also be a factor.
- Alcohol consumption: A higher percentage of regular alcohol consumption appears to play an important role. Studies have shown that women who consume more than 3 drinks per day have a 1.5 times higher risk.
- Radiation exposure: Undergoing radiation treatment for non-breast cancer increases the risk of breast cancer later in life.
- Hormone therapy: The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptives are associated with breast cancer, due to increased estrogen levels.
- Working environment: In 2012, researchers concluded that exposure to certain carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, for example in the workplace, may be linked to breast cancer. . In 2007, scientists suggested that night shifts may increase breast cancer risk, but recent research concludes this is not possible.
Symptoms of breast cancer
The first symptom of breast cancer most women notice is a lump or a thick area of breast tissue.
Most breast lumps (90%) are not cancerous, but it is best to get checked out by a doctor. Other symptoms include:
- Pain in the armpits or chest does not change with monthly cycles
- change the size or shape of one or both breasts
- bleed from either of your nipples
- a lump or swelling in one of your armpits
- dimples on your breasts
- pitting or reddening, like orange
- rashes on or around your nipples
- flaking, flaking, or peeling of skin on a breast or nipple
- A change in the appearance of your nipples, such as becoming engulfed in your breast
Breast pain is usually not a symptom of breast cancer.
Tell your doctor right away when you notice a change in your breasts
- Most breast changes will not have cancer. However, breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK so it is important that you understand the cause of the change.
- If your doctor is a male and you do not feel comfortable seeing him, you can ask if there is a female doctor available.
- You can also ask a female nurse or a worker to be present for your examination, or you can ask a friend or relative to join you.
- When the doctor examines your breast, they may feel that no further investigation is needed, they may ask to see you again after a short time or they can refer you to the breast clinic.
- This does not necessarily mean that you have breast cancer, just a further examination to find out what is happening.
Types of breast cancer
The most common types of breast cancer are:
- Invasive ductal carcinoma : Cancer cells grow outside the ducts into other parts of breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also spread, or spread, to other parts of the body.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma : Cancer cells spread from the lobes to the adjacent breast tissue. These invasive cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body.
- Dermal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a breast disease that can lead to breast cancer: Cancer cells are only in the lining of the duct, and do not spread to other tissues in the breast.
There are several less common types of breast cancer, such as Paget’s disease, breast cancer, mucus and inflammation.
Stages of breast cancer
Cancer is organized according to the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
There are many different ways to staging breast cancer. One way is from stages 0 to 4, but they can be divided into smaller stages.
- Stage 0: Called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), cells are confined to a duct and do not invade surrounding tissue.
- Stage 1: At the beginning of this stage, the tumor is up to 2 cm (cm) in size and it does not affect any lymph nodes.
- Stage 2: The tumor is 2 cm long and begins to spread to nearby nodes.
- Stage 3: The tumor is up to 5 cm long and may spread to some lymph nodes.
- Stage 4: Cancer has spread to distant organs, especially bone, liver, brain, or lung.
Treatment will depend on:
- type of breast cancer
- cancer stage
- Sensitive to hormones
- Patient age, overall health and preferences
The main options include:
- biological therapy, or targeted drug therapy
- Hormone therapy
Factors influencing choices will include cancer stage, other medical conditions and personal preferences.
Prevention of breast cancer
There is no sure way to prevent breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can significantly reduce the risk of breast cancer and other types of cancer. Including:
- Avoid excess alcohol consumption
- Follow a healthy diet with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables
- exercise enough
- maintain a healthy body mass index (BMI)
Women should think carefully about breastfeeding options and use HRT after menopause, as they can affect the risk.
Preventive surgery is an option for women at high risk.
Tips to help you choose
Although there are some typical breast cancer regimens, women have a choice:
- Talk to your doctor about all the risks and benefits of each treatment option and how they will affect your lifestyle.
- Think about joining a support group. Others with breast cancer know what you are going through and can give you advice and understanding. They can also help you decide on treatment.
- Ask your doctor if you should take a clinical trial, a study that tests new treatments before they are available to everyone.
Related articles about breast cancer:
- What is breast cancer? Causes and ways of preventing breast cancer.
- Learn about breast cancer
- FDA approved breast cancer treatment
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Pharmacy.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.