Blood cancer , also known as leukemia. This is a malignant cancer that is hard to treat, but blood cancer symptoms are difficult to detect, so it is often detected when the disease has become severe.
What is blood cancer?
- Blood cancer occurs when abnormal blood cells begin to grow out of control, disrupting the function of normal blood cells, preventing the blood from performing its many functions. Forming malignant white blood cells, they destroy red blood cells, causing anemia, which can lead to death.
- Most blood cancers begin in the bone marrow, where blood is produced.
- Blood cancer is usually curable in people with early blood cancer. However, the rate of complete recovery in the world is not high, only about 10%. Because most patients only detect the disease when it is in the terminal stage. This makes treatment more difficult.
- Blood cancer is usually diagnosed in people over 70 years of age.
- Leukemia is most common in children
- Lymphoma is usually found in people between the ages of 16-24.
- About 31% of men have leukemia than women.
Types of blood cancer
The three main types of leukemia are leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma:
Leukemia: is a blood cancer that starts in the blood and bone marrow. It occurs when the body makes too many abnormal white blood cells and interferes with the ability to create bone marrow and platelets.
Lymphoma is divided into 2 types including:
- Non-Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma: is a type of blood cancer that develops in the lymphatic system from cells called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infections.
- Hodgkin lymphoma: is a type of blood cancer that develops in the lymphatic system from cells called lymphocytes. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is characterized by the presence of an abnormal lymphoid cell called a Reed-Sternberg cell.
Multiple myeloma: is a blood cancer that begins in the plasma cells of the blood, a type of white blood cell created in the bone marrow.
Causes of blood cancer
All blood cancers are caused by mutated DNA errors in the blood. In fact, all cases of DNA changes in blood that occur have not been identified.
Although in most cases we do not know exactly what causes changes to the DNA that can lead to blood cancer, research has shown that there are a number of things that can affect the ability to You develop some types of blood cancer.
These risk factors include:
- family history,
- exposure to radiation or chemicals,
- some health conditions.
Risk factors vary among different types of blood cancer.
The symptoms of leukemia or leukemia are never the same and are constantly changing as the disease progresses. Sometimes, the affected individual may not experience symptoms in the early stages. But with the progression of blood cancer, the affected individual may experience some or all of the symptoms.
Some common symptoms of blood cancer include:
- Fever, chills
- Fatigue lasts, weakness
- Anorexia, nausea
- Unexplained weight loss
- Night sweats
- Osteoarthritis pain
- Abdominal discomfort
- Shortness of breath
- Infections often
- Itchy skin or skin rash
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin
Symptoms are physical or mental changes that occur due to a medical condition.
Methods of treating blood cancer
Treatment depends on the type of cancer, your age, how quickly the cancer has progressed, the cancer has spread, and other factors. Some common treatments for blood cancer include:
- Stem cell transplant : A stem cell transplant is passed into a healthy blood-forming stem cell into the body. Stem cells can be collected from bone marrow, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to intervene and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy for blood cancer sometimes involves giving many drugs together in one treatment regimen. This treatment may also be given before stem cell transplantation.
- Radiation therapy: Radiotherapy may be used to kill cancer cells or to relieve pain or discomfort. It may also be given before stem cell transplantation.
The outlook for people with leukemia depends on the type of infection.
All patients with remission will need to undergo regular follow-up, including blood tests and possible bone marrow tests to ensure the cancer does not return.
If leukemia doesn’t return, the doctor may decide over time to reduce the frequency of tests.
Reference Source for blood cancer:
- Source bloodwise.org.uk article Blood cancer : https://bloodwise.org.uk/info-support/blood-cancer , updated May 23, 2019.
- Source webmd.com article Types of Blood Cancer : https://www.webmd.com/cancer/lymphoma/types-and-differences#1 , updated 7/5/2018.
- A reputable source thuoclp.com sums up the article What is blood cancer?: https://index-china.com/blood-cancer/, updated 12/3/2020.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Pharmacy.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.