Index-china shared an article about 20 common cancers in 2019, the content of thuoclp cancer includes: 1. Lung cancer, 2. Liver cancer, 3. Kidney cancer, 4. Breast cancer, 5. Brain cancer, 6. Bone cancer, 7. Skin cancer, 8. Stomach cancer, 9. Pancreatic cancer, 10. Prostate cancer, 11. Ovarian cancer, 12. Adenocarcinoma thyroid cancer, 14. Bladder cancer, 15. Lymphoma, 16. Leukemia, 17. Myeloma, 18. Uterine cancer, 19. Cervical cancer, 20 Palate cancer.
Cancer causes cells to divide uncontrollably. This can lead to tumors, immune system damage and other impairments that can be fatal. Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is called metastasis.
Cancer is the common name to describe a group of diseases that reflect changes in cell reproduction, growth and function. Normal cells become abnormal (mutated) and proliferate uncontrollably, invading nearby (local) or distant (metastatic) tissue through the lymphatic system or blood vessels. Metastasis is the main cause of cancer death. Other terms for cancer are malignant neoplasm or malignant neoplasm. Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are currently more than 100 cancers affecting humans.
Tobacco use is responsible for 22% of cancer deaths. There is also 10% due to obesity, poor appetite, inactivity and excessive drinking. Other factors include a number of infections, radiation exposure and environmental pollution. In developing countries, nearly 20% of cancers are caused by infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Epstein – Barr virus, human papilloma virus infection and HIV. About 5-10% of cancers are inherited.
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating lots of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccinating certain infectious diseases, Eat too much processed meat and red meat, avoid sun exposure too much. Early detection of cancer is helpful, especially for cervical or colon cancer. Cancer is usually treated with several combinations of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and the severity of the disease at the start of treatment. Children under the age of 15 years at the diagnosis of 5-year survival rates in developed countries averages about 80%. letter in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%
index-china share of all types of cancer common best and identification sig.
1. Lung cancer
The lungs are two large organs located above the diaphragm and below the rib cage. When you breathe in your lungs absorb oxygen and put it into the bloodstream where it is pumped throughout the body. When you exhale, your lungs remove carbon dioxide, a waste gas from the blood.
Lung cancer begins in the cells of the lung. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into and destroy nearby tissues. It can also spread to other parts of the body before the cancer can be detected in the lungs. When cancer begins in lung cells it is called primary lung cancer.
Lung cancer is divided into two main types including:
- Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
- Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Signs identify lung cancer
Common lung cancer symptoms include:
- coughing or coughing up blood
- shortness of breath
- Anorexia and fatigue
However, the majority of patients have no symptoms, which is why people at risk of lung cancer undergo very important screening.
>> View details about Lung Cancer: https://index-china.com/lung-cancer/
2. Liver cancer
The liver is an essential organ with many functions located in the upper right part of the abdomen, below the diaphragm and above the stomach. It helps store nutrients from food, aids digestion and removes toxins from the body.
Liver cancer is determined by abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the liver. These altered cells gradually replace normal cells, disrupting the normal function of the liver and invading other organs.
Liver cancer is divided into two main types including
- Primary liver cancer: is divided into two types: the most common hepatocellular carcinoma and gallbladder cancer.
- Secondary liver cancer: Cancer that spreads from the stool to the liver.
Signs identify liver cancer
Common symptoms of cancer developing in the liver include:
- Pain in the upper right abdomen or near the right scapula
- Enlarged liver: a mass under the right rib
- Swelling or bloating in the abdomen develops into a mass
- Jaundice or yellowing eyes
The symptoms vary depending on where the cancer develops. The symptoms of liver cancer are often quite vague and usually do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. Talk to your doctor about all the symptoms you have.
>> View details about Liver Cancer: https://index-china.com/liver-cancer/
The kidney is a pair of pea-shaped organs located on either side of the spine protected by the lower chest. Their main function is to filter blood and remove excess water, salt and waste from the body. Although the body has two kidneys the body can operate with one if needed.
Kidney cancer is a cancer that begins when kidney cells grow out of control and can spread to other areas.
Kidney cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer, the RCC subcategories include:
- Clear renal cell carcinoma
- Papillary renal cell carcinoma
- Chromosome kidney cell cancer
- Rare RCCs include: Collecting RCC ducts and RCCs that are not classified.
Other types of kidney tumors include:
- Transitional cell cancer
- Wilms tumor
- Renal sarcoma
Early warning signs of kidney cancer
The most common sign of kidney cancer is: ” blood in the urine “ . Other signs of kidney cancer may include:
- Low back pain or pressure on one side does not go away
- A block or lump on the side or lower back
- Loss of appetite
- Unexplained weight loss
- Persistent fever is not caused by infection
- Swollen ankles and legs
- In men an enlarged cluster of veins called varicocele around a testicle, typically the right testicle
Kidney cancer is often difficult to detect at an early stage. In fact, before the tumor has grown or the disease has spread, kidney cancer is most often detected by X-ray or ultrasound.
>> View details about Kidney Cancer: https://index-china.com/kidney-cancer/
Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells lining a breast duct or lobe. These cells grow uncontrollably and are able to spread to other parts of the body. Both women and men can develop breast cancer, although breast cancer is rare in men.
Most types of breast cancer are breast adenocarcinoma. Breast cancer occurs in two broad categories including:
- Invasive breast cancer cells (invasive)
- Non-invasive breast cancer cells (topical)
Other types of breast cancer include:
- breast sarcoma
- adenocarcinoma cancer,
- adenocarcinoma cancer,
- Phyllodes tumor
Breast cancer is also categorized based on where the breast disease started such as milk ducts, lobules, how the disease develops and other factors.
Early warning signs of breast cancer
The symptoms of breast lumps vary from person to person. Some early warning signs of breast cancer include:
- Skin changes: such as swelling, redness or discernible visible on one or both breasts
- Increase the size or change the shape of the breast
- Change the appearance of one or both nipples
- Nipples secreted in breast milk
- Pain in any part of the breast
- Tumors or lymph nodes that are felt on or inside the breast
Breast cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages. Signs and symptoms usually appear when the tumor grows large enough to feel like a lump in the breast or when the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues and organs.
>> View details about Breast Cancer: https://index-china.com/breast-cancer/
5. Brain cancer
The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer may start in CNS or more commonly it can spread there.
Primary brain tumors are tumors made up of brain cells. Metastatic brain tumors spread to the brain from another location in the body such as the lung, colon, breast or kidney. Metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors.
The most common primary brain cancer in adults is glioma. There are two main types of brain tumors:
- Non-cancerous brain tumor (benign)
- Cancer brain tumor (malignant)
Early warning signs of brain cancer
Early signs of brain cancer may include:
- Headaches vary depending on the time of day and the location of the head and get worse over time
- feeling sick or vomiting often
- Memory problems or changes in personality
- Vision problems or speech problems get worse
The symptoms of brain cancer vary depending on the type, extent and location of the tumor, as well as the age and history of the patient. Therefore it is important to consult a doctor for an accurate diagnosis.
>> View details about Brain Cancer: https://index-china.com/brain-cancer/
6. Bone cancer
Bone cancer is a rare cancer that forms in bone cells. The body’s support frame, providing structure and shape for the body, acts as braces for muscles to create movement and protect internal organs.
Cancer that begins in the bone is called primary bone cancer or cancer that begins in another part of the body and metastases to the bone called secondary bone cancer or metastatic cancer. Secondary bone cancer is much more common than primary bone cancer.
Some of the main types of bone cancer are:
- Ewing sarcoma
Signs identify bone cancer
The main symptoms include:
- Persistent bone pain gets worse over time and continues at night
- swelling and redness in the bone: can make it difficult to move if the bone is affected near a joint
- a noticeable lump on the bone
- a weaker bone is more fragile than usual
Bone cancer can affect any bone, but most cases develop in the long bone of the leg or upper arm.
>> View details about Bone Cancer: https://index-china.com/bone-cancer/
7. Skin cancer
Most skin cancers are localized skin cancer growth. They originate in the cells of the surface epidermis of the skin. Unlike skin melanoma, most skin cancers rarely spread to other parts of the body and are life threatening.
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Nearly all skin cancers can be effectively treated if detected early.
There are three main types of skin cancer:
- Basal cell carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma
Signs identify skin cancer
Some early warning signs of skin cancer include:
- Changes in your skin are the most common sign of skin cancer.
- New growth, an ulcer that does not heal or mole changes.
Most skin cancers develop where they can be seen and have a good chance of early detection.
>> View details about Skin Cancer: https://index-china.com/skin-cancer/
The stomach is made up of five parts and stomach cancer can develop in any of them and can spread throughout the stomach and other organs. The disease may develop along the stomach wall into the esophagus or into the small intestine.
Cancer can also spread through the stomach wall and to nearby lymph nodes and organs such as the liver, pancreas and colon. If it spread or metastases stomach cancer can be found in the lungs, the lymph nodes above the collarbone and to the ovaries of women.
Almost all stomach cancers are gland cancer of the stomach. Other types of stomach cancer include:
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
- Carcinoid tumor
Early warning signs of stomach cancer
Early signs of stomach cancer may include:
- The feeling of fullness fast
- Nausea and vomiting
- Unexplained weight loss
- Stomach pain
Most patients with early-stage stomach cancer have no symptoms of the disease. In other cases, patients with stomach cancer may confuse their symptoms with a common stomach virus.
>> View details about Stomach Cancer: https://index-china.com/stomach-cancer/
Pancreatic cancer develops in the tissues of the pancreas an organ located behind the lower part of the stomach. The pancreas aids metabolic digestion and insulin production. Cancer can develop in both the exocrine gland or the endocrine gland of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cancer is classified into two main types:
- exocrine tumor
- Endocrine tumor
About 95% of pancreatic cancer begins in the exocrine glands, cells that produce enzymes that help break down proteins, fats and starches.
Early warning sign of pancreatic cancer
When pancreatic tumor symptoms first appear, they include jaundice, or jaundice and white of the eyes caused by an excess of bilirubin, a yellowish-brown substance produced by the liver. Other signs include:
- Dark urine
- Itchy skin
- Digestive issues
- nausea or vomiting
- Pain in the upper abdomen can last to the back
- Loss of appetite
- Sudden weight loss
- Swelling of the gallbladder
- Blood clots
Symptoms of pancreatic cancer may vary depending on the size of the tumor and the type of cell affected. Symptoms may also not develop until the tumor has progressed to or spread to other parts of the body.
>> View details about Pancreatic Cancer: https://index-china.com/pancreatic-cancer/
10. Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer forms in the tissues of the prostate gland, the male sex gland responsible for semen production. The second most common cancer in men after skin cancer, prostate cancer is a highly treatable disease especially if detected early.
Almost all prostate cancers are more than 99% prostate cancer. Other types of prostate cancer include:
- Transitional cell cancer
- Small cell cancer
Early warning sign of prostate cancer
Some early signs of prostate cancer include:
- Burning or pain when urinating
- More frequent urination at night
- Loss of bladder control
- Decreased flow or rate of urine flow
- Blood in urine
- Blood in semen
- Erectile dysfunction
- Ejaculation hurts
Symptoms usually do not develop until the tumor grows and the cancer has progressed to a more advanced stage and when they arise they can mimic other less serious conditions. Routine screening in the form of digital rectal examination and prostate-specific androgen testing (PSA) is important.
>> View details about Prostate Cancer: https://index-china.com/prostate-cancer/
11. Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer originates in the ovary, the almond-shaped female reproductive tract that produces eggs and the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer develops when cells in the ovaries begin to grow out of control.
When metastatic ovarian cancer can spread to organs and tissues in the abdomen, pelvis and lymph nodes or to distant locations throughout the body such as the lungs.
Cancer ovarian tumors are grouped by the type of cell into which the cancer begins:
- Ovarian carcinoma
- Germ cell ovarian cancer
- Buffer stroma
The most common type of the disease is epithelial cancer that begins in the cell layer that covers the ovaries and the abdominal cavity, accounting for 85-90%.
Early warning signs of ovarian cancer
Common symptoms may include:
- Abdominal bloating, indigestion or nausea
- Change the taste
- Pressure in the pelvis or lower back
- Needs more often or urgently for urination or constipation
- Change of intestinal motility
- Increase waist circumference
- Fatigue or low energy
- Menstrual changes
Most ovarian cancer is not diagnosed until it has advanced to the advanced stage. The symptoms caused by ovarian tumors may be mistaken for less serious conditions that are not cancerous. If you experience persistent symptoms for more than a few weeks, consult your doctor for follow up.
>> View details about Ovarian Cancer: https://index-china.com/ovarian-cancer/
12. Thyroid cancer
The thyroid produces several important hormones including the thyroid hormone that is involved in controlling body temperature, weight, energy levels and heart rate. The thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps the body use calcium.
Thyroid cancer forms in the tissues of the thyroid gland located in front of the throat, below the cartilage called Adam’s apple.
Different types of thyroid cancer are classified according to the cells they form and by how they look similar to normal thyroid cells under a microscope. Types include:
- Papillary carcinoma
- Cystic carcinoma
- Hurthle cell carcinoma
- Medullary thyroid cancer
- Anaplastic carcinoma
Early warning signs of thyroid cancer
The earliest sign of thyroid cancer is an abnormal lump, nodule or swelling in the neck.
Other early warning signs of thyroid cancer include:
- Swollen glands in the neck
- The cough is prolonged and not caused by a cold
In the early stages of thyroid cancer there may not be any signs or symptoms. In many cases, thyroid cancer is detected at a routine neck exam or during imaging scans done to diagnose another condition.
>> View details about Thyroid Cancer: https://index-china.com/thyroid-cancer/
Colorectal cancer develops in the tissues of the colon or rectum. The colon and rectum are both found in the lower part of the digestive system, forming a long muscular tube called the large intestine.
Adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum (adenocarcinoma) accounts for 95% of all colorectal cancer cases. Other types of colorectal cancer include:
- Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors
- Primary colorectal lymphoma
- Intestinal stromal tumor
Early warning signs of colorectal cancer
If early colorectal cancer causes symptoms, they usually include:
- Rectal bleeding is light colored or dark red
- Stool narrow
- Tenesmus: that is the feeling that you have to have a bowel movement but nothing passes
- Anemia due to iron deficiency
- Persistent abdominal pain
- Unexplained weight loss
Most colon or rectal cancers develop from polyps, so screening to find and remove them when they are in their first form helps prevent them from developing into cancer.
>> View details about Colorectal Cancer: https://index-china.com/colorectal-cancer/
14. Bladder cancer
The bladder is an empty muscle bag containing urine. It is located in the pelvis and is part of the urinary system.
Bladder cancer begins when cells in the lining of the bladder become abnormal, causing them to grow and divide out of control.
There are three main types of bladder cancer. They are named after the type of cell in which cancer first develops.
- Urothelial carcinoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Adenocarcinoma (adenocarcinoma)
Early warning signs of bladder cancer
Early-stage bladder cancer may not produce symptoms. Symptoms include:
- Blood in urine
- Frequent or painful urination
- Inability to urinate
Because the bladder is responsible for holding urine after it is produced by the kidneys, many symptoms of bladder cancer may be associated with urinary abnormalities.
>> View details about Bladder Cancer: https://index-china.com/bladder-cancer/
The lymphatic system is made up of an extensive network similar to blood vessels branching into all body tissues. These vessels contain lymph, a colorless aqueous fluid that carries lymphocytes, which are specialized white blood cells that fight infection.
Lymphoma is a type of leukemia, collectively known for cancers that develop in the lymphatic system.
There are two main types of lymphoma:
- Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Signs identify lymphoma
People with lymphoma may experience other signs and symptoms such as:
- Fever and chills
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Pain in the neck or ribs
- Painless swollen glands in the armpits, neck or groin.
- Enlargement of the spleen.
Lymphoma can sometimes be difficult to diagnose because these signs and symptoms are usually mild. Some people may not have noticeable signs while others may have a mild fever. Usually there are swollen lymph nodes, they are located throughout the body usually in the neck, groin, abdomen or armpits.
>> View details about Lymphoma: https://index-china.com/lymphoma/
Leukemia is a cancer that usually forms in blood cells or bone marrow. In most cases, leukemia forms in white blood cells, helping the body fight infections.
When leukemia cells grow out of control they overwhelm healthy cells making it difficult for the body to control bleeding and fight infections.
Leukemia is classified in two ways: the type of white blood cells or the affected bone marrow cells. Another way to classify leukemia is:
- Acute leukemia: fast growing disease
- Chronic leukemia: disease grows slowly
Early warning signs of leukemia
Leukemia symptoms usually last longer than two weeks and may include:
- Fever, chills
- Tired, weak
- Anorexia, weight loss
- Night sweats
- Osteoarthritis pain
- Abdominal discomfort
- Shortness of breath
- Infections often
- Easy bruising or bleeding
- Petechiae: small red spots under the skin
The symptoms of leukemia usually vary depending on the type of leukemia being diagnosed. Some symptoms such as night sweats, fever, fatigue and soreness are similar to flu-like symptoms.
>> See details about Leukemia:
A myeloma is a type of blood cancer, it develops from cells in the bone marrow called plasma cells. Because bone marrow is found throughout the body myeloma can affect many areas at once and the disease is often called multiple myeloma.
Myeloma has many types, each based on the type of immunoglobulin (protein) produced by malignant plasma cells.
Myeloma is different from bone cancer, because it starts in cells that form the outer hardware of the bone, commonly known as bone marrow cancer.
Early warning signs of myeloma
Many myeloma symptoms vary from person to person. Some common signs include:
- Bone pain
- Inexplicable fractures
- Tired, weak feeling.
- Recurrent infection, fever
- Shortness of breath
- Weight loss
- Increased thirst and urination
Many myeloma symptoms may develop slowly over time. Usually the first stage myeloma is asymptomatic and the symptoms do not appear until the disease progresses. In some cases, the disease is detected in a normal blood test or test to diagnose another condition.
>> View details about myeloma:
18. Uterine cancer
Uterine cancer begins in the uterus of the empty pear-shaped organ in the woman’s pelvis where the baby grows up during pregnancy
Uterine cancer can form in different areas of the uterus but most of these cancers develop in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is called endometrial cancer.
Uterine cancer has two types of origins that develop in different parts of the uterus:
- Endometrial cancer: develops in the lining of the uterus
- Uterus: forms in the muscles or other tissues of the uterus.
Cervical cancer develops in the lower part of the uterus, cervix and is not a type of uterine cancer.
Early warning signs of uterine cancer
For most women with uterine cancer, abnormal bleeding is the most common symptom and the first symptom they notice. Other common symptoms of uterine cancer include:
- Abnormal vaginal discharge with no signs of blood
- Difficulty or painful urination
- Pain during intercourse
- Pain or a mass in the pelvic area
- Unintentional weight loss
These signs and symptoms may be caused by conditions other than uterine cancer. If you experience any of these signs, see your doctor to determine its cause.
>> View details about Uterine Cancer:
19. Cervical cancer
The cervix is a small, narrow, tube-like organ in the base of the uterus that connects to the vagina. The cervix is the way sperm passes through and travels to the uterus and the menstrual fluid flows out. It also relaxes during labor to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal.
Cervical cancer forms when the cells lining the cervix begin to develop abnormal changes. Over time these mutant cells can grow out of control and form a tumor.
Cervical cancer is divided into two main types:
- squamous cell carcinoma
- Adenocarcinomas (adenocarcinomas)
Each is distinguished by the appearance of cervical cells under a microscope.
Early warning signs of cervical cancer
Cervical cancer may not always cause early symptoms of the disease, they may include:
- Vaginal bleeding between periods or after intercourse
- Vaginal bleeding after menopause
- Vaginal translation
- Pain in the pelvis
Most women are advised to have a Pap test (cancer screening) starting at age 21.
>> View details about Cervical Cancer:
20. Cancer of the throat
The throat forms the entrance to the digestive and respiratory system. It is a small but complex part of the body that connects the nose and mouth with the esophagus, leading to the stomach and trachea, connecting to the lungs. The throat allows us to swallow, breathe and speak.
Palate cancer develops in the back of the mouth, tonsils, voice box, root of tongue, sinuses and nasal cavity, salivary glands, soft palate and lymph nodes in the neck.
Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the throat are the main types of throat cancer.
There are three main types of throat cancer:
- Anhydrous cancer: forms in the back and side of the throat, soft palate, tonsils and root of tongue.
- Laryngeal cancer: in the larynx.
- Palate cancer: forms in the lower part of the throat.
Signs identify throat cancer
Symptoms of throat tumors often mimic the symptoms of a cold include
- sore throat
But the symptoms of nasopharyngeal cancer will last more than a few weeks.
>> View details about throat cancer:
ource of Reference for common cancers:
- Source healthline.com article The 13 Most Common Cancer Types : https://www.healthline.com/health/most-common-cancers , updated March 7, 2019.
- Source vi.wikipedia.org Cancer article : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ung_th%C6%B0 , updated November 25, 2019.
- Source Cancer.gov article Cancer types : https://www.cancer.gov/types , updated November 25, 2019 .
- A reputable source thuoclp.com summarizes the 20 most common cancers: https://index-china.com/20-common-cancers-today/ , updated 14/3/ 2020.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Ngoc Anh is currently Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Head of Department of General-Uematology of Hanoi Medical University. Consulting doctor at ThuocLP Vietnamese health.
Professional qualifications, Academic degrees – Education:
Graduated from General Practitioner System, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated with a Master degree in Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, Henri Mondor Institute Center, University of Paris 6, French Republic 1996-1997; 1999
Graduated from the training program specialized in Gastrointestinal, North Royal Sydney Hospital, Australia; 2002
Graduated from a training program specialized in chronic liver diseases, Pizza, Italy 2009
Graduated with a PhD in Gastrointestinal, Hanoi Medical University
Associate Professor, Gastroenterology, Hanoi Medical University
Training and Scientific Research:
Published more than 200 articles in domestic and international specialized journals
Editor of many monographs and participates in compiling 2 textbooks.
Guide many students and graduate students of Hanoi Medical University
Manager of many grassroots research projects
Certificate of Good Clinical Practice (GCP: 2012, 2015), Ministry of Health
Specialized certificates: General gastrointestinal endoscopy, Interventional gastrointestinal endoscopy, General gastrointestinal ultrasound, Interventional gastrointestinal ultrasound (Bach Mai BV), Chronic liver disease.